TITLE IX DEFINITIONS
Affirmative Consent means an informed, affirmative, conscious, voluntary, and mutual agreement to engage in sexual activity. It is the responsibility of each person involved in the sexual activity to ensure that Affirmative Consent has been obtained from the other participant(s) to engage in the sexual activity. Lack of protest or resistance does not mean consent nor does silence mean consent.
Affirmative Consent can be withdrawn or revoked. Affirmative Consent cannot be given by a person who is incapacitated.
A person with a medical or mental Disability may also lack the capacity to give consent.
Sexual activity with a minor (under 18 years old) is never consensual because a minor is considered incapable of giving legal consent due to age.
Age, with respect to employment discrimination, refers to the chronological age of any individual who has reached his or her 40th birthday. With respect to discrimination in non-employment programs and activities, Age means how old a person is, or the number of years from the date of a person’s birth. Age based stereotype refers to generalized opinions about matters including the qualifications, job performance, health, work habits, and productivity of individuals over forty.
Age is a Protected Status.
Dating Violence is abuse committed by a person who is or has been in a social or dating relationship of a romantic or intimate nature with the victim. This may include someone the victim just met; i.e., at a party, introduced through a friend, or on a social networking website. For purposes of this definition, “abuse” means intentionally or recklessly causing or attempting to cause bodily injury or placing another person in reasonable apprehension of imminent serious bodily injury to self or another. Abuse does not include non-physical, emotional distress or injury.
Disability, as defined in California Education Code §66260.5, Government Code § 12926 and the federal Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA), 2008 Amendments, means:
Having a physical or mental condition that limits a major life activity. “Limits” means making the achievement of a major life activity difficult. “Limits” is determined without regard to mitigating measures such as medications, assistive devices, prosthetics, or reasonable accommodations, unless the mitigating measure itself limits a major life activity. A “major life activity” is broadly construed and includes physical, mental, and social activities (such as walking, talking, seeing, hearing) and working; or
Having a known history of a qualifying impairment; or
Being regarded or treated as having or having had a qualifying impairment; or
Being regarded or treated as having or having had such an impairment that has no presently disabling effects but may become a qualifying impairment in the future.
Disability includes HIV and AIDS. Disability is a Protected Status.
Discrimination means Adverse Action taken against a Student by the CSU, a CSU employee, or another Student because of a Protected Status.
Domestic Violence is abuse committed against someone who is a current or former spouse; current or former cohabitant; someone with whom the Respondent has a child; someone with whom the Respondent has or had a dating or engagement relationship; or a person similarly situated under California domestic or family violence law. Cohabitant means two unrelated persons living together for a substantial period of time, resulting in some permanency of relationship. It does not include roommates who do not have a romantic, intimate, or sexual relationship. Factors that may determine whether persons are cohabiting include, but are not limited to: (1) sexual relations between the Parties while sharing the same living quarters; (2) sharing of income or expenses; (3) joint use or ownership of property; (4) whether the Parties hold themselves out as spouses; (5) the continuity of the relationship; and, (6) the length of the relationship. For purposes of this definition, “abuse” means intentionally or recklessly causing or attempting to cause bodily injury or placing another person in reasonable apprehension of imminent serious bodily injury to self, or another. Abuse does not include non-physical, emotional distress or injury.
Gender means sex, and includes Gender Identity, Gender Expression, and transgender. It also includes sex stereotyping.
Sex includes, but is not limited to pregnancy, childbirth, breastfeeding or any related medical conditions.
Gender Identity means a person’s identification as male, female, a gender different from the person’s sex at birth or transgender.
Gender Expression means a person’s gender-related appearance or behavior whether or not stereotypically associated with the person’s assigned sex at birth.
Sex stereotype means an assumption about a person’s appearance or behavior or about an individual’s ability or inability to perform certain kinds of work based on a myth, social expectation, or generalization about the individual’s sex.
Transgender is a general term that refers to a person whose gender identity differs from the person’s sex at birth. A transgender person may or may not have a gender expression that is different from the social expectation of the sex assigned at birth. A transgender person may or may not identify as transsexual.
Gender is a Protected Status.
Genetic Information means:
- The Student’s genetic tests.
- The genetic tests of the Student’s family members.
- The manifestation of a disease or disorder in the Student’s family members.
- Any request for, or receipt of genetic services, or participation in clinical research that includes genetic services, by a Student or any Student’s family member.
- Genetic Information does not include information about any Student’s sex or age.
Genetic Information is a Protected Status.
Harassment means unwelcome conduct, based on the Complainant’s Protected Status, that is sufficiently severe, persistent or pervasive that its effect, whether or not intended, could be considered by a reasonable person in the shoes of the Complainant, and is in fact considered by the Complainant, as limiting her/his ability to participate in or benefit from the services, activities or opportunities offered by the University.
Marital Status means an individual's state of marriage, non-marriage, divorce or dissolution, separation, widowhood, annulment, or other marital state. Marital Status is a Protected Status.
Medical Condition means either of the following:
Any health impairment related to or associated with a diagnosis of cancer or a record or history of cancer; or
Genetic characteristics. For purposes of this section, "genetic characteristics" means either of the following:
- Any scientifically or medically identifiable gene or chromosome, or combination or alteration thereof, that is known to be a cause of a disease or disorder in a person or offspring, or that is determined to be associated with a statistically increased risk of development of a disease or disorder, and that is presently not associated with any symptoms of any disease or disorder; or
- Inherited characteristics that may derive from the individual or family member, that are known to be a cause of a disease or disorder in a person or offspring, or that are determined to be associated with a statistically increased risk of development of a disease or disorder, and that are presently not associated with any symptoms of any disease or disorder.
Medical Condition is a Protected Status.
Nationality includes citizenship, country of origin, and national origin. It also includes language use restrictions and holding or presenting a driver’s license issued under section 12801.9 of the Vehicle Code.
Nationality is a Protected Status.
Protected Status includes Age, Disability (physical or mental), Gender (or sex), Genetic Information, Gender Identity (including transgender), Gender Expression, Marital Status, Medical Condition, Nationality, Race or Ethnicity (including color or ancestry), Religion or Religious Creed, Sexual Orientation, and Veteran or Military Status.
Race or Ethnicity includes ancestry, color, ethnic group identification, and ethnic background.
Race or Ethnicity is a Protected Status.
Religion or Religious Creed and includes all aspects of religious belief, observance, and practice, including religious dress and grooming practices, and includes agnosticism and atheism. Religious dress and grooming practices, such as wearing religious clothing, head or face covering, jewelry, and artifacts, are part of a Complainant’s religious observance or belief.
Religion or Religious Creed is a Protected Status.
Retaliation means Adverse Action taken against a Student because the Student has or is believed to have:
Exercised rights under this Non-Discrimination Policy;
Reported or opposed conduct which was reasonably and in good faith believed to be in violation of this Non-Discrimination Policy;
Assisted or participated in a policy-related investigation/proceeding regardless of whether the Complaint was substantiated; or,
Assisted someone in reporting or opposing a violation of this Non-Discrimination Policy, or assisted someone in reporting or opposing Retaliation under this Non-Discrimination Policy.
Retaliation may occur whether or not there is a power or authority differential between the individuals involved.
Sexual Harassment, a form of Sex Discrimination, is unwelcome verbal, nonverbal or physical conduct of a sexual nature that includes but is not limited to sexual advances, requests for sexual favors, and any other conduct of a sexual nature where:
Submission to, or rejection of, the conduct is explicitly or implicitly used as the basis for any decision affecting a Complainant’s academic status or progress, or access to benefits and services, honors, programs, or activities available at or through the University; or
The conduct is sufficiently severe, persistent or pervasive that its effect, whether or not intended, could be considered by a reasonable person in the shoes of the Complainant, and is in fact considered by the Complainant, as limiting his or her ability to participate in or benefit from the services, activities or opportunities offered by the University; or
The conduct is sufficiently severe, persistent or pervasive that its effect, whether or not intended, could be considered by a reasonable person in the shoes of the Complainant, and is in fact considered by the Complainant, as creating an intimidating, hostile or offensive environment.
Sexual Harassment could include being forced to engage in unwanted sexual contact as a condition of membership in a student organization; being subjected to video exploitation or a campaign of sexually explicit graffiti; or frequently being exposed to unwanted images of a sexual nature in a classroom that are unrelated to the coursework.
Sexual Harassment also includes acts of verbal, non-verbal or physical aggression, intimidation or hostility based on Gender or sex-stereotyping, even if those acts do not involve conduct of a sexual nature.
This policy covers unwelcome conduct of a sexual nature. While romantic, sexual, intimate, personal or social relationships between members of the University community may begin as consensual, they may evolve into situations that lead to Sexual Harassment or Sexual Misconduct, including Dating or Domestic Violence, or Stalking, subject to this policy.
Claiming that the conduct was not motivated by sexual desire is not a defense to a complaint of harassment based on Gender.
Sexual Misconduct: All sexual activity between members of the CSU community must be based on Affirmative Consent. Engaging in any sexual activity without first obtaining Affirmative Consent to the specific activity is Sexual Misconduct, whether or not the conduct violates any civil or criminal law.
Sexual activity includes, but is not limited to, kissing, touching intimate body parts, fondling, intercourse, penetration of any body part, and oral sex. It also includes any unwelcome physical sexual acts, such as unwelcome sexual touching, Sexual Assault, Sexual Battery, Rape, and Dating Violence. When based on Gender, Domestic Violence or Stalking also constitute Sexual Misconduct. Sexual Misconduct may include using physical force, violence, threat, or intimidation, ignoring the objections of the other person, causing the other person’s intoxication or incapacitation through the use of drugs or alcohol, or taking advantage of the other person’s incapacitation (including voluntary intoxication) to engage in sexual activity. Men as well as women can be victims of these forms of Sexual Misconduct. Sexual activity with a minor is never consensual when the Complainant is under 18 years old, because the minor is considered incapable of giving legal consent due to age.
- Sexual Assault is a form of Sexual Misconduct and is an attempt, coupled with the ability, to commit a violent injury on the person of another because of that person’s Gender or sex.
- Sexual Battery is a form of Sexual Misconduct and is any willful and unlawful use of force or violence upon the person of another because of that person’s Gender or sex as well as touching an intimate part of another person against that person’s will and for the purpose of sexual arousal, gratification, or abuse.
- Rape is a form of Sexual Misconduct and is non-consensual sexual intercourse that may also involve the use of threat of force, violence, or immediate and unlawful bodily injury or threats of future retaliation and duress. Any sexual penetration, however slight, is sufficient to constitute Rape. Sexual acts including intercourse are considered non-consensual when a person is incapable of giving consent because s/he is incapacitated from alcohol and/or drugs, is under 18 years old, or if a mental disorder or developmental or physical Disability renders a person incapable of giving consent. The Respondent’s relationship to the person (such as family member, spouse, friend, acquaintance or stranger) is irrelevant. (See complete definition of Affirmative Consent above.)
- Acquaintance Rape is a form of Sexual Misconduct committed by an individual known to the victim. This includes a person the victim may have just met; i.e., at a party, introduced through a friend, or on a social networking website. (See above for definition of Rape.)
Sexual Orientation means one’s preference in sexual partners and includes heterosexuality, homosexuality or bisexuality.
Sexual Orientation is a Protected Status
Stalking means engaging in a repeated Course of Conduct directed at a specific person that would cause a Reasonable Person to fear for the safety of self or others’ safety or to suffer Substantial Emotional Distress. For purposes of this definition:
- Course of Conduct means two or more acts, including but not limited to, acts in which the stalker directly, indirectly, or through Third Parties, by any action, method, device, or means, follows, monitors, observes, surveils, threatens, or communicates to or about a person, or interferes with a person’s property;
- Reasonable Person means a reasonable person under similar circumstances and with the same Protected Status(es) as the Complainant;
- Substantial Emotional Distress means significant mental suffering or anguish that may, but does not necessarily require medical or other professional treatment or counseling.
Veteran or Military Status means service in the uniformed services.
Veteran or Military Service may be a Protected Status.